Movement of drugs from their site of administration into the vascular bed; influenced by many factors


Refers to route or method of drug delivery; examples include oral, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intravenous

Adulterated food

A food that "bears or contains any poisonous or deleterious substance which may be rendered injurious to health"


A factor that results in a reduction in appetite.


The alteration of a substance (such as a drug), within the body.


The coordination of food intake and nutrients with the body's natural circadian rhythms


The study of how drugs and their effects vary with biological timing and circadian periodization

Circadian rhythm

Biological processes displaying endogenous and entrain able oscillation of about 24h

Conjugation reactions

Refers to enzymatic reactions that generally occur in Phase 2 metabolism; these reactions add endogenous substances to partially metabolized drug compounds to ultimately facilitate excretion

Dietary supplement

A product (other than tobacco) intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients: a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other botanical, an amino acid, a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake, or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or any combination of the aforementioned ingredients

Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994

Defines and regulates dietary supplements and also regulates good manufacturing practices (GMP) of companies producing the supplements to ensure the safety of the public.

Distribution, or Volume of Distribution

The volume in an organism throughout which a drug appears to have been distributed; the volume into which a drug appears to have been dissolved after administration to an organism


A substance or chemical agent, which can affect living processes - and can be a natural product, chemical substance, or pharmaceutical preparation for administration to a human or animal

Drug-nutrient interaction

The effect of a medication on food or a nutrient in food.


A parameter that focuses on how a drug works in a real-world situation and considers interactions with other medications the patient may be taking and other comorbidities that the patient may have that might alter how the drug acts


The maximum effect of which the drug is capable. A potent drug may have a low efficacy, and a highly efficacious drug may have a low potency.


Proteins that enable and/or speed up the rate of a chemical reaction within a living organism; an enzyme can act as a catalyst for a specific set of reactants (called substrates) into specific products


The process of eliminating a drug from the body; there are several routes for drug elimination from the body (sweat or skin; via kidney to urine; via liver to feces, etc.)

Fat soluble vitamins

Vitamins that are insoluble in water. Includes vitamin A (retinol), E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), D (calciferol), and K (phylloquinone and menaquinone)


An anaerobic metabolic process used by bacteria to generate energy for growth from compounds and host-indigestible dietary components

Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio

A parameter commonly examined in gut microbial research. A higher ratio is commonly associated with chronic inflammatory conditions.

First-pass metabolism

Also known as the first-pass effect; this refers to the rapid uptake and metabolism of a drug agent by the liver before it reaches systemic circulation

Food anticipatory activity

The time-specific arousal prior to feeding

Food entrain able oscillator

A circadian clock that controls food anticipatory activity

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

A law passed in 1938 that gave the FDA authority to oversee the safety of food, drugs, medical devices, and cosmetics


Study of individual genes, their role and function in health and disease, and their mode of inheritance


Refers to an organism's entire genetic information, the genome, and the function and interaction of DNA with the genome, as well as with environmental or non-genetic factors, such as a person's lifestyle

Gut microbiome

Total population of microorganisms colonizing the gastrointestinal tract

Hydrolytic reaction

Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule of water is added to a substance

Insoluble fiber

Type of fiber that doesn't attract water and thus speeds up transit time through the intestine.


Dietary components (fats, carbohydrates, protein) that are required in large quantities and contribute to energy.


The chemical reactions that convert drugs into compounds that are easier for the body to eliminate and excrete; also known as biotransformation

Microbial diversity

A measure of the richness and evenness of a bacterial community and is commonly associated with positive health outcomes.


Dietary components, specifically vitamins and minerals, required by the body in small quantities to maintain health and prevent disease.

Misbranded food

A food where the "labeling is false or misleading in any particular way"


Concerned with the impact of dietary components on the genome and how genetic variations affect the way we react to specific foods


A factor that results in an increase in appetite.

Peripheral oscillators

Biochemical circuits outside of the central clock that cycle in a continuous phase and receive input from the SCN and external stimuli


What a drug does to the body


Concerned with how genes affect a person's response to drugs


What the body does to a drug


The study of drugs and their effects

Phase 1 metabolism

Refers to the action of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) oxidative enzyme system; CYP monooxygenases are phase I enzymes.

Phase 2 metabolism

Refers to conjugation reactions that involve the addition of intracellular polar groups (glucuronate, glutathione, sulfate, and glycine) to the foreign molecules (partially metabolized drug compounds) and function to protect humans against chemical insult by facilitating excretion


Selectively fermented ingredients that allow for alterations in both the composition and/or activity of the gut microbiota that in turn confers benefits on host health and well-being


Beneficial live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts can provide health benefits to the host.


The inactive form of a drug that must be modified in some way to become biologically active

Pure Food and Drugs Act

A law passed in 1906 that prohibited interstate commerce in adulterated and misbranded (i.e. containing additives that were not listed clearly and/or potentially hazardous) food and drugs


Cellular bound or unbound macromolecule with structural specificity

Short chain fatty acids

Inorganic fatty acids produced by bacterial fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates

SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism)

DNA sequence variations that account for 90% of all human genetic variation

Soluble fiber

Type of dietary fiber that binds water and other hydrophilic compounds, slowing transit time through the intestine and adding bulk to stools

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

Small region of the hypothalamus that is responsible for controlling circadian rhythms

Time-restricted feeding

Broad term to refer to a protocol of eating at specific times and fasting the rest of the time

Water soluble vitamins

Vitamins that dissolve in water. Includes all of the B vitamins and vitamin C.


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Drug and Nutrient Interactions Copyright © 2023 by Sara Police and Jesse Hoffman is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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